The Matrice of Gozo has been a collegiate church since medieval times, certainly before 1445. A collegiate church is one served by a body of secular clergy who are bound to the daily chanting or recitation of the Divine Office in choir. A reference to the medieval collegiate can be found in a document of 26 December 1463 preserved in the registers of Pope Pius ii.
The 1551 catastrophe – when the entire population of Gozo, including at least ten priests, was taken into slavery – led to the breakdown of the collegiate chapter. On 6 June 1623, Bishop Baldassarre Cagliares established a Collegiate Chapter within the Matrice church for the second time. Pope Alexander vii reaffirmed this second Collegiate Chapter on 20 October 1663.
On 16 September 1864, with the establishment of the diocese of Gozo, this medieval foundation became the Cathedral chapter.